Research

Patterns of renal disease: A 30-year renal biopsy study at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa

A Vermeulen, C N Menezes, M Mashabane, O K Butler, P Mosiane, S Goetsch, S Naicker

Abstract


Background. Data on renal pathology from sub-Saharan Africa are limited.

Objectives. To report on biopsy-confirmed renal pathology over 30 years in Soweto, South Africa (SA).

Methods. Retrospective analysis was conducted of 1 848 adult native renal biopsies performed at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital between 1 January 1982 and 31 December 2011.

Results. There was an even gender distribution, and 96.4% of patients were of black ethnicity. The mean (standard deviation) age of patients was 33.5 (12.6) years. The main clinical indications for renal biopsy were nephrotic syndrome (47.7%), acute kidney injury (19.8%) and asymptomatic urine abnormalities (8.1%). Secondary glomerular diseases (SGNs) (49.3%) occurred more frequently than primary glomerular diseases (PGNs) (39.7%). SGNs increased during the study period, while PGNs decreased (p<0.001). The most frequent PGNs were focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (29.6%), membranous glomerulonephritis (25.7%) and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (18.1%). Lupus nephritis (LN) (31.0%) was the most frequent SGN, followed by HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) (13.3%) and malignant hypertension (12.5%). HIV-positive biopsies constituted 19.7% of all biopsies, and the proportion increased over time. In HIV-positive patients, the most common diagnoses were HIVAN (32.7%), HIV immune complex disease (11.8%) and FSGS (11.3%).

Conclusions. This study contributes to our knowledge of renal pathology in SA and shows some data that differ from studies in other regions. The increase in SGNs probably reflects the influence of HIV and LN in the study population.

 


Authors' affiliations

A Vermeulen, Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

C N Menezes, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

M Mashabane, Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

O K Butler, Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

P Mosiane, Division of Anatomical Pathology, National Health Laboratory Service and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

S Goetsch, Lancet Pathology Laboratory, Johannesburg, South Africa

S Naicker, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

Full Text

PDF (238KB)

Keywords

Histopathology; HIV; Primary glomerular diseases; Secondary glomerular diseases; South Africa

Cite this article

South African Medical Journal 2019;109(7):486-492. DOI:10.7196/SAMJ.2019.v109i7.13644

Article History

Date submitted: 2019-06-28
Date published: 2019-06-28

Article Views

Abstract views: 961
Full text views: 436

Comments on this article

*Read our policy for posting comments here