Akhenaten, a unique pharaoh

François Pieter Retief, Louise Cilliers


Akhenaten was a unique pharaoh in more ways than one. He initiated a major socio-religious revolution that had vast consequences for his country, and possessed a strikingly abnormal physiognomy that was of note in his time and has interested historians up to the present era. In this study, we attempt to identify the developmental disorder responsible for his eunuchoid appearance.

Authors' affiliations

François Pieter Retief, University of the Free State

Louise Cilliers, University of the Free State

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Eunuchoid physiognomy; Kallmann's Syndrome; Fertile Unuch Syndrome

Cite this article

South African Medical Journal 2011;101(9):628,630.

Article History

Date submitted: 2010-08-22
Date published: 2011-09-05

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